Software Development Life Cycle – Introduction Model Stages and Advantages

What is the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?

SDLC or Software Development Life Cycle is essentially the process or phases of a model or methodology, which software engineers and developers follow in developing an application or software. In simpler words, it is a process consisting of a series of planned activities for planning, creating, testing, deploying and maintenance of software.

SDLC is often referred as software development process, as it consists of all tasks, which needs to be followed while developing an application or software. SDLC is followed within IT development companies to develop, alter, replace or enhance the performance of the software. ISO/IEC 12207 is an international standard for SDLC, which ensures high quality of the newly developed software. It also helps IT development companies in improving the overall quality of their software development services.

What are the major SDLC Models, followed in the IT Industry?

There are various SDLS models, which are currently followed in the IT Industry. Often referred as ‘Software Development Process Models’, all the process models follow unique software development steps, ensuring 100% success of the development projects.

The major software development life cycle models are-

  • Waterfall Model
  • Iterative Model
  • Spiral Model
  • V-Model
  • Big Bang Model

Other related models are Rapid Application Development (RAD), Prototype and Agile Models.

The advantages of choosing an appropriate Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)-

  • Increased Product Quality
  • Increased Development Speed
  • Improved Client Relations
  • Improved Tracking & Control
  • Decreased Project Risks
  • Decreased Project Management Overhead

What are the different stages of SDLC?

Stage 1:

Planning and Requirement Analysis

This is the most important stage in the SDLC. This stage needs input from the customers, sales team, industry experts, a marketing team and their survey reports. After which, senior business managers and developers of a software development company plan the project approach and the development model.

Stage 2:

Designing

After the analysis of requirements and finalizing the Design Document Specification (DDS), the product architecture is designed by an expert team. This architecture has to stand upon various parameters such as budget, time, product robustness, risk assessment and design modularity, after which it is considered for the development.

Stage 3:

Development

The actual development of the software or application starts at this stage. The team of engineers and developers follow the coding guidelines set by the organization and use different tools for code generation. The programming code is generated as per the details documented in the DDS. The developers use different high level programming languages as per the requirement.

Stage 4:

Testing

In this stage, the final product goes through a pre-defined road of testing, where defects or bugs in the product are reported and then fixed by the developers. This stage ensures that the final product meets the highest quality standards, which are accepted worldwide.

Stage 5:

Deployment

At this stage, the final product is deployed at the client base. At times, the software is integrated with the client’s current application and database. All the deployment and integration works are done under the guidance of expert software engineers and developers.

Stage 6:

Maintenance & Support

Most of the reputed IT development companies also provide complete maintenance and technical support, post deployment of the final product at client base.

What Every Man Should Know About Online Fashion Shopping

Online fashion shopping is growing in popularity because of its ease and convenience. The greatest thing about it is you do not have to leave the comfort of your home. You can browse through selections and purchase items just by clicking on buttons. In some cases, online retailers carry more items than actual outlets. These are just a few reasons why more consumers are shifting to this alternative.

You will find many retailers offering different kinds of clothes. Although this is the case, not all provide consumers with quality goods. Be aware of this while you shop for items to add to your collection. Here are a few tips to keep in mind before you shop. Look for these the next time you shop for mens clothing online.

Fresh looks and extensive collections

Do your shopping with retailers offering the latest trends. The world of fashion is constantly changing and only a few can keep up. Keep yourself updated about what’s in style and what’s not, and apply this knowledge when shopping. Buy from retailers featuring the latest seasonal collections to ensure your wardrobe is up to date.

The complete look – pants, shirts, and the right accessories

Do not waste your time on places selling only tops or the opposite. This will make it difficult for you to mix and match pieces. Online shops offering the whole package make it easier for you to determine which pieces go well with which. It is best to go with those offering you a one-stop shopping trip.

Reasonable prices

Men’s clothing may be more expensive than women’s most of the time, but this does not mean you should buy the first thing you find. Make sure you get value for your money. You can spend a little more on a clothing staple such as a classic shirt. You can use this for many occasions, and getting a product that will last a long time is worth the extra bucks. Look for bargains if you want to buy statement and signature pieces.

Expect to spend a little more for things like suits. This is the most elegant piece you will have in your wardrobe and it is important you select carefully. Quality is important. It should have the right cut and colour, and be made of the right fabric as well.

Style recommendations

The truth is that only a select few men know how to dress themselves – and dress well, at that. One handy tool to look out for is style suggestions. This is where they feature a particular look on a model and list down the items completing the ensemble. For pieces not parts of a ‘complete look,’ seek ideas and suggestions of what to buy it with. This tool will come in handy for those who have difficulty mixing and matching different items. Professional stylists put these looks together and buying the total package will ensure you look your best.

Detailed sizing charts

The biggest downside of online fashion shopping is not being able to try on the clothes before purchasing. Detailed sizing charts are the solution to this problem. This important tool will help you figure out which fits suit your body type. It will make shopping for mens clothing online a more pleasant and fulfilling experience.

All You Need To Know About FOB

FOB is an important term related to the shipping of goods. It stands for “freight on board” or “free on board” indicating the designation when the ownership or liability of goods gets transferred from the seller to the buyer. The term FOB is often confusing for many in the shipping industry. However, it is crucial that both sellers and buyers must understand the proper FOB definition and scope so that they do not end up in losing dollars. This term determines the responsibility of the party for bearing the charges of freight and also decides the point of time when the shipment is passed over from the sellers to the buyers.

For instance, in case of international shipping, FOB indicates that the consignor is going to bear the loading cost and the transportation cost for sending the goods to the port. The consignee bears expenses related to insurance, ocean freight, unloading and the transportation cost of the goods from the port to the actual destination. The seller in this situation passes over the risk of the goods to the buyer when there is the loading of goods at the port for shipment.

Difference Between Origin And Destination:

FOB origin indicates that the ownership of the goods is transferred as soon as in gets out of the hands of the seller. If shipping of the goods is required then it is the buyer’s responsibility and he or she has to bear the expenses. This type of transaction is often referred to the city name like FOB Boston, FOB San Francisco, etc.

FOB destination, on the other hand, indicates that ownership of goods is transferred to the buyer when the original products reach the doorstep of the buyer. Here, the seller has to arrange for the transportation of the goods for which either he pays or charges the buyer for the expenses. The seller also has to be liable in case the goods suffer any damage while en route.

FOB comes more into the picture when there are wholesale or B2B shipments of large goods.

Use Of FOB In The Shipping Documents:

There are four ways in which the FOB term is included in the documents for shipping:

  • FOB (place of origin)- Freight Collect
  • FOB (place of origin)- Freight Prepaid
  • FOB (place of destination)- Freight Collect
  • FOB (place of destination)- Freight Prepaid

It is important that the shippers understand the FOB designations well especially in case of damages to the goods. Some of the receiving docks totally deny the delivery of the damaged goods without accepting the damage notation. However, when a shipment is designated properly, it is clear that the damage risk has to be borne by the seller or the buyer. In such cases, there is no question of confusion. Moreover, the Incoterm 2010 has also amended the definition of FOB which has made the sale contracts simpler and understandable by all.

Why Does FOB Matter?

The term is particularly important for those companies who are engaged in shipping huge quantities of goods. A clear concept of the FOB term helps in understanding the liability of the party regarding the safety in the delivery of the shipment. It also helps the buyer and the seller in knowing which party owns the materials at a particular point of the shipping cycle. This information is also helpful for the accountants who can maintain instant records of the transactions on the basis of FOB. Moreover, the term is also useful in proper logistics management.

Sales Tax And FOB:

If you are falling in the nexus of any state which charges selling taxes on shipment, then FOB can be your friend. For the packages which have FOB origin marked on them, the buyer pays the freight charges directly by contracting with a shipper. Thus, the seller has no role here. The buyer does not have to bear sales taxes as he has already paid the freight charges which most of the states consider exempted.

When people find the term quite complex to understand and interpret, they often take the help of professionals who are expert in the field. This ensures that you comply with the terms without any faults and the shipments get managed quite fast. FOB incoterms is another interesting aspect which the shipping industry must pay attention to and know about in details.

FAQs About Motorcycle Insurance

Motorcycle insurance is one of the biggest costs involved in riding your motorcycle. Whether your ride is a scooter or a sports bike it’s best to get the best value insurance policy that covers everything you need.

What determines the cost of motorcycle insurance

Your personal details

In the insurance business, age is a common determinant for risk. Male riders under 25 are considered the most likely to file claim, whereas female and older riders are more likely to receive lower premiums. Occupation may also come into play in factoring premiums, depending on whether the coverage compensates you for time missed at work.

Where you live

A big influence on the cost of your car insurance is where you live. The chance of your car being broken into or stolen is a key concern for the insurer. More urban areas traditionally facing greater risk of theft and therefore tend to be more expensive than countryside locations.

The type of bike you own

The type of bike you own can greatly affect your insurance premium. Naturally, a more expensive bike will cost an insurer more to fix or replace. Motorbikes with better engines and faster speeds will represent a greater risk for collision as well as damage caused by an accident.

Older model bikes may require more maintenance and difficulty securing repair parts. For motorbikes older than 20 years, it would be wise to seek an insurer that specialises in classic bikes and cars.

Who else will be riding the bike

Adding another rider to the policy will affect the overall cost. Adding an experienced motorist will generally lower your premium. Conversely, adding a younger individual may escalate costs.

As each insurance company weighs these factors differently, you will find fluctuations in the prices you are quoted. Cheaper rates most likely find your situation more amenable to their particular risk formula.

Usage of the bike

The more often you ride your bike, the more likely you will be involved in an accident. Moreover, bikes that are used for commuting represent a greater risk than those ridden for pleasure, due to the difference in traffic. Residents living in high traffic postcodes may also experience higher insurance costs.

Storage and security measures

Theft represents another concern for insurance companies when calculating premiums. Alarms or anti-theft devices such as an immobiliser, bike lock, or ground anchor can mitigate this risk. In some cases, an insurer might recommend a specific brand or anti-theft device to their consumers.

Parking your bike in a garage can further alleviate theft concerns. Insurance companies will also factor in the crime rate in your postcode before settling on a quote.

Previous claims or convictions

Riders who have made previous claims or suffered motoring convictions present a greater risk to insurers. If you fall into one of these categories, it may be best to seek a company that specialises in insuring convicted riders

Your excess

The excess is the amount of any claim that your insurer will expect you to cover. For example, your riding your bike and you have an accident your bike now needs repairs worth £1000 and your excess is £100, you’ll have to pay £100 and your insurer will pay the remainder.

The more cost you are willing to absorb, the lower your premium. Having a high excess is ideal for riders who travel infrequently or on less busy roads. Those who commute daily may want a lower excess in order to file a claim for minor accidents. This, in turn, will elevate the cost of insurance.

No Claims Discount

Save up your no claims discount by avoiding making small claims upon your policy. After a set number of years, 4 or 5 typically, you’ll often be offered the option to pay an additional small premium to protect your no claims bonus. This can prove very helpful if you subsequently end up having an accident.

Advanced driving skills

By taking an advanced driving course you may also be able to reduce your premiums. The Institute for Advanced Motorists and the Royal Society for Prevention of Accidents each offer membership which provides you with discounts for both the cost of driving courses and your car insurance premiums. Two key variables NOT within the policyholder’s control

Consolidating policies

By insuring a number of vehicles with the same insurer, or by trying to take out home and life insurance through your car insurer, you may be able to secure a ‘bulk buy’ discount.

One final piece of advice

A large percentage of insurance is now sold on the Internet. That’s because it’s convenient and cheap. Many insurers now give a further 10%-15% discount if you buy online.

Level of cover

Third party

This covers the policy holder against damage to a third party’s property or to the third party themselves. Third party only bike insurance cover is usually a cheap motorcycle insurance policy compared to Third Party Fire and Theft or Comprehensive motorcycle insurance.

For example, if you have an accident with another vehicle and it is your fault then the Third Party Only policy will pay for the repair to that other vehicle, and will pay for any medical claims or injuries suffered by the occupant(s) of the other vehicle and your pillion rider. A Third Party Only bike insurance policy will not pay for the costs of repairing your own vehicle nor will it pay anything toward your medical expenses if you are injured. In addition, if your vehicle is stolen or is set on fire, a Third Party Only policy will not make any payment toward the theft or repair of the vehicle.

Third Party Fire & Theft

This is exactly the same as the Third Party Only motorcycle insurance policy, set out above, however a Third Party Fire and Theft UK motorcycle policy will pay out in the event that your vehicle is stolen or is set on fire.

Fully Comprehensive

A Fully comprehensive UK motorcycle insurance policy will pay-out for third party damages and injuries, will pay-out in the event of your vehicle being stolen or set on fire, and will also pay for any damage to your own motorcycle regardless of whose fault the accident was.